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the normalized voltage, defined by | V o | = V o V i {\displaystyle \scriptstyle \left|V_{o}\right|={\frac {V_{o}}{V_{i}}}} .

A buck converter or step-down converter is a DC-to-DC converter which decreases voltage, while increasing current, from its input ( supply) to its output ( load). Find some of the lowest I Q products in our buck converter portfolio below including the TPS62x family of low-power converters with DCS control technology and the world's lowest I Q switching regulator, the TPS62840. If we consider that the converter operates in steady-state, the average current through the inductor is constant.the normalized voltage, defined by | V o | = V o V i {\displaystyle \left|V_{\text{o}}\right|={\frac {V_{\text{o}}}{V_{\text{i}}}}} . Switching converters (such as buck converters) provide much greater power efficiency as DC-to-DC converters than linear regulators, which are simpler circuits that dissipate power as heat, but do not step up output current. Output voltage ripple is the name given to the phenomenon where the output voltage rises during the On-state and falls during the Off-state.

The inductor current falling below zero results in the discharging of the output capacitor during each cycle and therefore higher switching losses [ de]. The "increase" in average current makes up for the reduction in voltage, and ideally preserves the power provided to the load. Where I L ¯ {\displaystyle {\overline {I_{\text{L}}}}} is the average value of the inductor current. These assumptions can be fairly far from reality, and the imperfections of the real components can have a detrimental effect on the operation of the converter.An effective way to ensure low noise while controlling power loss is to eliminate the post-regulator LDO from your power-supply design and use a low-noise DC/DC buck converter. I ¯ L = − I o 1 − D {\displaystyle {\bar {I}}_{\text{L}}={\frac {-I_{o}}{1-D}}} Fig 6: Evolution of the output voltage of a buck–boost converter with the duty cycle when the parasitic resistance of the inductor increases. We note from basic AC circuit theory that our ripple voltage should be roughly sinusoidal: capacitor impedance times ripple current peak-to-peak value, or Δ V = Δ I / (2ω C) where ω = 2π f, f is the ripple frequency, and f = 1/ T, T the ripple period.